By: Dr. Tami Silverman   

The end of the school year is in sight, and Covid-19 control measures give us hope that the pandemic is waning. However, we are just starting to understand the effects this past year filled with stress, change, and uncertainty has had on the mental health of students and teachers.

According to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), ADHD, behavior problems, anxiety, and depression are the most commonly diagnosed mental disorders in children. Some of these conditions, such as anxiety and depression, commonly occur together. The American Academy of Pediatrics indicates that the stress, fear, grief, isolation, and uncertainty related to COVID-19 is likely to increase the number of American children that have at least one mental health disorder.    

The key to helping the large number of students with mental health disorders is to understand the scope of the issue, combat the outstanding myths, connect children with treatment, supports, and services, and work to build strong support networks for all our young people.  To effectively respond, we need to recognize the signs of student mental health issues.

It can be difficult to distinguish between the behaviors and emotions that are related to typical child development and those that require extra attention and concern. Occasional emotional distress, anxiety, stress, and depression are normal experiences for all children and youth.

Younger students may exhibit symptoms such as intense worry or fear, frequent outbursts, complaints about stomach aches or headaches with no known medical cause, and a lack of interest in playing with other children. Other common symptoms include trouble falling or staying asleep, separation anxiety, crying more easily, and themes like illness or death during play. And kids in this age group may not talk about or have descriptive words to talk about their feelings.

Symptoms in adolescents include a loss of interest in previously enjoyable activities, sleeping too little or too much, and engaging in risky, destructive or self-harming behaviors. One of the signs of distress with this age group is spending increasing amounts of time alone or avoiding social interactions, something that became commonplace with quarantine and remote school. Even given reduced activities and social distance parameters, signs of distress may include previously outgoing teens that suddenly show little interest in texting, playing video games, or checking social media.

Older teens and young adults have also experienced pandemic-related stressors, including the closure of universities, loss of jobs, and inability to interact with peer groups, all factors that can contribute to poor mental health. According to the Kaiser Family Foundation, during the pandemic, a larger than average share of young adults (ages 18-24) report symptoms of anxiety and/or depressive disorder (56%). Both adolescents and young adults often try to hide their struggles because of fear, shame, or a sense of responsibility to avoid burdening others.

Dealing with toggling  between in-person and remote learning, student absences, longer hours, efforts to engage students remotely, and technology access issues made teachers’ jobs exponentially more stressful this year. Education Weekly reports that teachers’ levels of stress and anxiety have soared, while their morale has plummeted. Districts have been challenged to increase support for educators while simultaneously striving to address the social and emotional learning needs of students traumatized by the events of the past year.

We cannot expect that all students and teachers need the same services or supports. At particular risk are our students and educators with preexisting mental illness, and those who are Black and Latinx, who were more likely to have had COVID-19 or to have lost friends or family members. We need to make sure that these historically marginalized students and educators receive a level of services are matched to their individual needs.

Efforts to understand and address social and emotional learning and behavioral and mental health needs of students started long before the pandemic hit. Yet the soaring needs of both students and teachers has put a spotlight on the importance of enhancing and expanding such supports. The American School Counselor Association and the National Association of School Psychologists created a resource addressing the interdependent needs of both groups. The U.S. Department of Education also developed a guidebook to help school districts support educator and staff stability and well-being while also supporting the SEL and mental health needs of their students.

This month we are celebrating the incredible resilience, adaptability, and persistence of our students and educators. By providing mental health supports and services that address the scope of post-pandemic needs, we can back our words of appreciation with needed action.


(Dr. Tami Silverman is the President & CEO of the Indiana Youth Institute. She may be reached at  or on Twitter at @Tami_IYI. IYI’s mission is to improve the lives of all Indiana children by strengthening and connecting the people, organizations, and communities that are focused on kids and youth.)

By: Dr. Tami Silverman   

April is Child Abuse Awareness Month, and the pandemic has raised additional concerns around the safety and well-being of our kids. Public health emergencies, by introducing additional family stress and the loss of financial supports, often increase the risk for child abuse and neglect, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Protection. The reduction or suspension of the critical social supports provided by schools, afterschool, and youth services in the past year also raises risk concerns.

As outlined in our 2021 KIDS COUNT® Data Book, child maltreatment reports have decreased during the pandemic, although this may be due in part to children being home and not in school with mandated reporters. Nationally, educators are the primary reporters of child abuse and neglect, generating about 20.5% of such reports. It was difficult for teachers and other mandated reporters to determine abuse or neglect while only virtually interacting with their classes. Child maltreatment reports are expected to increase once children go back to school in-person full-time, due to the ability of educators to monitor students more frequently and visually assess neglect and abuse.

In 2019, the most recent numbers available, the Indiana Child Abuse and Neglect Hotline received 242,482 reports, a more than twenty percent rise over what was reported in 2014. Approximately 1 out of every 9 hotline reports are determined to be substantiated, resulting in 28,799 child victims of substantiated allegations of child abuse or neglect in 2019, a rate of 18.4 cases of abuse or neglect per every 1,000 Hoosier children. This is an overall increase of 8.1% since 2014 (26,634), although it is a decrease of 11.9% from 2018 (32,799). The most common form of substantiated allegations is neglect (82.9%), followed by sexual abuse (8.8%), and physical abuse (3.5%). Of the 28,799 substantiated allegations, nearly 3 in every 5 involved children under the age of 7.

Every adult in the Indiana is a mandatory reporter of suspected child abuse and neglect. It is critical that we all be familiar with how to report child abuse. A hotline report must be made if you have a reasonable suspicion that child abuse or neglect has occurred. You do not need to have direct knowledge of abuse or neglect. But how do you know what actions correspond to the legal definitions of abuse or neglect?

Indiana’s Child Abuse and Neglect Law, IC 31-34-1, lists definitions for child neglect, physical abuse, psychological maltreatment and sexual abuse. Basic, straightforward lists of both physical and behavioral indicators of each category of maltreatment are as follows:

  • Signs of neglect include: persistent hunger, developmental lags and consistent fatigue.
  • Signs of physical abuse include: unexplained bruises, numerous bruises in various stages of healing, and marks on many surfaces of the body.
  • Signs of sexual abuse include: the child having sexual knowledge advanced for their age, preoccupation with their body, and acting out sexual behavior.

Although each of these signs may be found separately, they often occur in combination.  As a youth worker, teacher, coach, caring family member, or neighbor, you may be in the ideal position to see that something is not right in a child’s life.

The Indiana Child Abuse and Neglect Hotline, 1-800-800-5556, is available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, 365 days a year. Reports can be made anonymously. Visit Prevent Child Abuse Indiana’s website ( to learn more and to find awareness events in your area. You can also locate your nearest Prevention Council Child Advocacy Center by visiting their website at

April is designated as Child Abuse Prevention Month, but the work of protecting our children is something we must all commit to every day of the year.


(Dr. Tami Silverman is the President & CEO of the Indiana Youth Institute. She may be reached at  or on Twitter at @Tami_IYI. IYI’s mission is to improve the lives of all Indiana children by strengthening and connecting the people, organizations, and communities that are focused on kids and youth.)

Data Reveals Unprecedented Trauma for Many Families Due to the Widespread Effects of the Coronavirus

INDIANAPOLIS, IN — Hoosier households performed well with on the amount of homes who have access to internet for education, but is falling short on steady employment through pandemic, heightening racial disparities, according to Kids, Families and COVID-19: Pandemic Pain Points and a Roadmap for Recovery, a 50-state report of recent household data developed by the Annie E. Casey Foundation analyzing how families are faring during the COVID-19 crisis.

This KIDS COUNT report examined data from weekly surveys conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau that demonstrate how families across the country are challenged to meet basic needs during this global public health crisis while managing school, work and mental health. The Foundation finds that the concurrent health and economic crises are exacerbating trends that show vulnerable families are unable to fulfill basic needs.

According to the report, around 50 percent of Hoosier adults living in households with children have lost employment income during the pandemic. More recently Hispanic households with children (58%) have lost income during this time as compared to the state average of 50% of families experiencing financial loss. Additionally, 51% of Black families and 49% of White families have experienced lost income.

“With the unpreceded struggles Hoosier homes are facing due to COVID-19, we must work together to improve the conditions that foster the success of all children and work to understand the significant disparities that exist” said Tami Silverman, president and CEO of Indiana Youth Institute.

The report shows how urgent state and federal intervention is to the health and well-being of families with children.

By measuring food security, the ability to make rent or mortgage payments, health insurance status, and mental health concerns, the Casey Foundation identified four pain points for children and families that require immediate action. Percentages of Hoosier families with children who have experienced challenges as measured by these four indicators are listed below:

  • FOOD SECURITY: Sixteen percent of households said they sometimes or often did not have enough to eat.
  • HOUSING STABILITY: Nineteen percent of households had slight or no confidence they would make the next rent or mortgage payment on time.
  • AFFORDABLE HEALTH CARE: Eleven percent of households did not have health insurance.
  • MENTAL HEALTH: Twenty percent of households felt down, depressed or hopeless.

The Annie E. Casey Foundation urges policymakers and child advocates to unite across differences and put COVID-19 response at the top of 2021 agendas to ensure that children have what they need to survive and thrive. The Foundation calls on elected officials and other decision makers to:

  • Put racial and ethnic equity first in policymaking by using disaggregated data and engaging community stakeholders. This should ensure that the policymaking process is informed by the diverse perspectives of those hardest hit by the crisis and created in partnership with communities. This approach should underpin any concrete policy actions.
  • Prioritize the physical and mental health of all children by guaranteeing that any vaccine will be available without cost as a factor and by retaining and strengthening the access to health insurance. To promote mental health, particularly in times of crisis, policymakers should work to reduce the student-to-school-counselor ratio in all school settings to levels recommended by mental health professionals.
  • Help families with children achieve financial stability and bolster their well-being by expanding access to unemployment insurance for part-time and gig economy workers, low-wage workers and students and by expanding child care access. Additionally, policymakers should eliminate barriers to accessing Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) and the Child Tax Credit (CTC). And beyond any temporary housing assistance programs aimed at heading off a foreclosure or eviction crisis, federal policymakers should expand the Section 8 Housing Choice Voucher program, and increase the overall availability of public housing.
  • Ensure schools are better funded, more equitably funded and ready to meet the needs of students disparately affected by the pandemic by boosting school funding to protect against the economic impact of the pandemic, build maintenance-of-equity requirements into relief packages and address disparities in technology access at home and in the classroom.

To read the full report, click here.


Release Information

Additional information is available at Journalists interested in creating maps, graphs and rankings in stories about the Kids Count report can use the KIDS COUNT Data Center at


About the Indiana Youth Institute :

For three decades, the Indiana Youth Institute has supported the youth services field through innovative trainings’, critical data, and capacity-building resources, aiming every effort at increasing the well-being of all children. To learn more about the Indiana Youth Institute, visit, like us on Facebook, or follow us on Twitter


About the Annie E. Casey Foundation

The Annie E. Casey Foundation creates a brighter future for the nation’s children by developing solutions to strengthen families, build paths to economic opportunity and transform struggling communities into safer and healthier places to live, work and grow. For more information, visit KIDS COUNT® is a registered trademark of the Annie E. Casey Foundation.

January is National Mentoring Month, and MENTOR Indiana, a special initiative of Indiana Youth Institute, is celebrating the annual campaign aimed at expanding quality mentoring opportunities, connecting more of our community’s young people with caring adults.

“Now more than ever, our kids need a network of caring supportive adults. This month we are celebrating the programs and individuals who are already engaged in quality mentoring activities while also looking to increase engagement through our state,” said Dr. Tami Silverman, IYI’s president and CEO.

Caring, empathetic, and dedicated adults who serve as mentors can be vital guides to help kids successfully transition into adulthood. Research shows that mentors play a powerful role in providing young people with the tools to strive and thrive, to attend and engage in school, and to reduce or avoid risky behavior like drug use.

In turn, these young people are:

  • 55% more likely to be enrolled in college
  • 81% more likely to report participating regularly in sports or extracurricular activities
  • 78% more likely to volunteer regularly in their communities.
  • More than twice as likely to say they held a leadership position in a club or sports team.

Yet, the same research shows that one in three young people in our country will grow up without a mentor.  Over the past several decades, 18- to 29-year-olds are more than twice as likely to cite having had a mentor in their childhood than those over 50. This growth is encouraging. However, there are still many adults who may be interested in mentoring but are not yet engaged with a quality program, and hundreds of Hoosier children still missing out on mentoring’s benefits.

Not all mentoring programs are beneficial, and some well-intentioned, yet poorly structured, programs can have negative impacts on kids. MENTOR outlines essential guidance for strong mentoring programs, including:

  1. Programs must set clear expectations for both the mentors and the mentees
  2. Screening needs to include an application, securing a mentor’s commitment, and scheduling of regular face-to-face meetings.
  3. Screening best practices include an in-person interview, a reference check, and a criminal background check.
  4. Mentor training should be provided prior to the match, helping to increase the likelihood of creating positive matches.
  5. Finally, mentorship training and support throughout the relationship is essential.


Mentoring programs are operated by many different organizations and agencies. 79% of youth mentoring agencies are nonprofits, 9% are in K-12 schools or districts, 3% are in government agencies, 3% are in higher education institutions, and the remaining 6% are based in religious institutions, for-profits, healthcare facilities, businesses, and others.

Quality mentoring programs can be found throughout Indiana. To find a program near you, go to

National Mentoring Month is the time of year where engagement from community members interested in becoming a mentor is highest.  With the support of the mentoring community, we are encouraging the public to go beyond just digital engagement – and become involved in real life.  Mentoring relationships are at their best when connections are made between a caring adult and a young person who knows that someone is there to help guide them through those real life decisions.

National Mentoring Month is led by MENTOR: The National Mentoring Partnership and the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, with support from the Highland Street Foundation. Each year since its launch in 2002, National Mentoring Month has enjoyed the strong support of the President and the United States Congress. Other prominent individuals who have participated in the campaign include: Maya Angelou, former President Bill Clinton, Clint Eastwood, Quincy Jones, Cal Ripken Jr.,Bill Russell and Usher.

MENTOR Indiana, a strategic initiative of the Indiana Youth Institute since 2008, empowers youth champions to deliver quality mentoring across the state of Indiana.


About the Indiana Youth Institute: 

For three decades, the Indiana Youth Institute has supported the youth services field through innovative trainings, critical data, and capacity-building resources, aiming every effort at increasing the well-being of all children. To learn more about the Indiana Youth Institute, visit, like us on Facebook, or follow us on Twitter.




By: Dr. Tami Silverman

Many kids look forward to holiday breaks, with their chances for vacations from school, sleeping late, extra cookies and treats, family, friends, and presents. But this year, like most everything else, COVID-19 has changed and added stress to our holiday plans.

With this year’s unique circumstances, how can we support our children, and youth workers, through the holiday season? Three groups of experts offer helpful advice.

Social Work Today highlights the importance of balancing structured time with downtime. Children and youth do best with routines, especially when it comes to sleep schedules. Aside for the few days you may be celebrating, try to keep children on schedules that has them going to bed and waking up within an hour of their normal times. Dr. Hollie Sobel, a licensed clinical psychologist from Social Work Today, also suggests finding teachable moments that feel more relaxed than school activities. Help with cooking or baking and budgeting for holiday gifts are ways to engage kids in the season while also teaching math and financial skills.

Finding ways to take care of ourselves while also thinking of others is advice from the American Psychological Association. Simple physical activities, like going for walks or shooting hoops, can help kids (and adults) reduce stress. This is also the ideal time of the year to think about strengthening social connections. Although we may not be able to celebrate in-person, we can help our children and youth maintain special connections from a distance. Exchanging special notes, calls, or texts are easy ways for children to connect with positive people in their lives. Let them take the lead in choosing the method and message.

The American Academy of Pediatrics put together a pre-pandemic guide that still offers sound advice for handling times during the holidays that can be hectic and stressful:

Finally, it is crucial that we pay attention to the hardships the pandemic has created for many kids and families. Loss of a family member, job loss, financial stress, and food insecurity have disproportionately impacted families with children, particularly families and children of color.

As caring communities, we can come together to address the needs of our neighbors. Reach out to your local United Way, food bank or community foundations to see how you can help. Teaching children and youth to share their time and resources with others is a life shaping lesson that can benefit our kids for years to come.

Talking to our kids about why and how the holidays will be different can help them develop realistic expectations, while reducing their stress and frustrations. Continue to listen and reinforce that feelings of disappointment, anger, or sadness are all normal. The CDC has many helpful resources for talking with our kids about the pandemic, including this one.

We can all play a role by modeling the importance of health and connection. Give yourself, and the kids in your life, a break. Set aside time to play games, watch movies, or simply laugh with the children in your life. There are a few easy ways to make the season enjoyable, and meaningful, for our kids. It is often the unexpected giggles or unplanned moments that make lasting memories.


(Dr. Tami Silverman is the President & CEO of the Indiana Youth Institute. She may be reached at  or on Twitter at @Tami_IYI. IYI’s mission is to improve the lives of all Indiana children by strengthening and connecting the people, organizations, and communities that are focused on kids and youth.)






By: Dr. Tami Silverman     

The pandemic has heightened tensions over this year’s elections, and our kids are paying attention. They listen as negative political ads blare from our TV screens and radios. They see the political rants swirling on social mediaShould we shield our children from the frequently fiery arguments? Should we engage them in discussions and debates? What happens when their friends or family members declare differing political beliefs? How we approach politics with our children is important not only in this heated election cycle, but also in shaping their understanding of democratic civic engagement for years to come. 

A March 2020 study published in Child Psychiatry and Human Development found that children and teens worry about politics and political issues, regardless of their family’s political affiliation. This research and many child development experts suggest that talking to kids about the political process, issues, elections and related media can help. Children as young as preschool can discuss and be engaged in our political process. The challenge is to adjust the approach to their developmental stage. It is important to scaffold our responses, increasing and building the complexity of the information as kids get older.  

The challenge of teaching our kids about civic engagement is not new, and Indiana law requires that the election process be taught in schoolsOver 25 years ago, the Indiana Bar Association created the Indiana Kids’ Election. Using volunteer attorneys, this program aims to help students gain a deeper understanding of, and appreciation for, the many ways we may participate in our representative democracy, including voting, poll books, and “I Voted” stickersThe program’s goal is to educate and empower children with knowledge of the actual process. Most kids would think if 100 people vote for candidate X and 99 people vote for candidate Y, then candidate X wins. With the electoral college, that is not how our Presidential electoral process works, and it is very confusing.   

Not only is our system of government complicated, but public discussion of government,policy and candidates frequently focuses on divides in opinions and perspectives. This means children will inevitably encounter family, friends, teachers, coaches, and others holdingdiffering political beliefs. Experts agree about the importance of teaching kids how to respectdifferences, and of learning how to weigh the evidence supporting political positions and claimsFor many, this may be the most difficult aspect of encouraging a child’s sense of civic responsibility. By focusing in part on the positive attributes of your selected candidates, rather than the negatives of the alternatives, adults have the opportunity and responsibility to model respectful discourse.   

Now is the perfect time for children to get involved in civic societyVote, and take your children with you. Let them volunteer for issues or candidates they support. Share with your children your political views, while also encouraging them to develop their own. Reinforce that people may hold differing opinions about important issues, and that we can challenge claims and disagree while at the same time recognizing and respecting one another’s human dignity. By focusing on the importance of voting and civic engagement, rather than on mudslinging, we can support the healthy growth of our kids and our democracy  

Websites with kid- and teen- friendly news 

Political books and games for kids  

  • Bad Kitty for President by Nick Bruel 
  • Duck for President by Doreen Cronin 
  • Election Connection by Susan Ring 
  • Election Night! board game 
  • Everyone Gets a Say by Jill Twiss 
  • Grace Goes to Washington by Kelly S. DiPucchio 
  • Grace for President by Kelly S. DiPucchio 
  • If I Were President by Catherine Stier 
  • If You Go with Your Goat to Vote by Jan Zauzmer 
  • A Kids Book About Voting by Next Up 
  • Monopoly: House Divided board game  
  • The Next President by Kate Messner 
  • Vote!by Eileen Christelow 
  • One Vote, Two Votes, I Vote, You Vote by Bonnie Worth 
  • A Vote Is a Powerful Thing by Catherine Stier 
  • V Is for Voting by Kate Farrell 


(Dr. Tami Silverman is the President & CEO of the Indiana Youth Institute. She may be reached at or on Twitter at@Tami_IYI. IYI’s mission is to improve the lives of all Indiana children by strengthening and connecting the people, organizations, andcommunities that are focused on kids and youth.)   



By: Dr. Tami Silverman    

One of the COVID-19 pandemic’s many negative consequences is a drastic rise in the number of children and families suffering food insecurity. September is National Hunger Awareness Month. More than ever, we must work to find solutions and support existing ways to meet this critical, foundational need.

The lack of a nutritious, consistent food supply has significant implications for child development and well-being. Children from food-insecure households are more likely to have social and behavioral problems and developmental challenges. Past research, including a study from the National Institutes of Health, found that food insecurity affects the academic performance, body weight, and social skills of school-age children. Elementary-aged children from food-insecure families were found more likely to have lower math scores and to repeat a grade. Teenagers in food-insecure homes were more likely to have mental health issues. Research from the American Academy of Pediatrics found that children in food-insecure household had increased rates of lifetime asthma diagnosis, depressive symptoms, foregone medical care, and emergency department use.

Before Covid-19, the number of hungry children in Indiana and across the country had been declining for years. Prior to the pandemic 1 in 6 Hoosier children were food insecure. Hoosiers living in rural areas tend to have the highest rates of food insecurity, with urban areas a close second. Pre-pandemic child food insecurity rates ranged from 21.0% in Grant County to 11.9% in Hamilton County.

The pandemic has brought an abrupt halt to this progress. Food insecurity rates are, not surprisingly, linked with unemployment rates and income. Feeding America’s Map the Meal Gap study predicts how changes in employment will affect food insecurity. Their study projects that a significant rise in unemployment over the year (+7.6 percentage points), and a corresponding rise in child poverty (+5.0 percentage points), would result in 1 in 4 children experiencing food insecurity. Feeding America’s concerns are reinforced by a new report from Save the Children and research from Northwestern University that both estimate that the current percentage of food insecure families is higher than during the Great Recession.

Hoosiers living in rural areas tend to have the highest rates of food insecurity, with urban areas a close second. In addition, No Kid Hungry reports that African American households face hunger at twice the rate of the national average. The higher rates of food insecurity are directly related to the racial wealth gap. Households headed by a single parent also experience food insecurity at significantly higher rates, especially when the head is female, as do households where a child or parent is disabled.

Many organizations and communities have been working to stop the pandemic from perpetuating or deepening these inequities. Food banks, schools, churches, afterschool programs, and community organizations responded quickly last spring to create new channels for food distribution. Drive-thru centers, to-go meals, and drop-off food programs were often specifically designed to address child hunger when school buildings abruptly closed. Schools remain the nation’s second-largest nutrition assistance program, after only the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance (SNAP) Program. In 2019, 47.3% of Indiana students received free or reduced-price meals: 39.5% received free meals and 7.8% received reduced-price meals at school. In March, Congress created the Pandemic Electronic Benefit Transfer (or P-EBT program) for households with children who were eligible for free or reduced-price lunch to receive the cash value of those meals on electronic benefits cards.

As school opening plans varied this fall, there was well-founded concern that our children could end up going hungry. In late August, Feeding Indiana’s Hungry, the Food Research & Action Center (FRAC), Feeding America, the School Nutrition Association, Share Our Strength’s No Kid Hungry campaign, along with 70 national and state organizations, including Indiana Youth Institute, asked the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) to extend critical nationwide child nutrition program waivers, allowing schools and community organizations to continue operating summer nutrition programs, through the 2020-2021 school year. Members of Congress from both parties supported the extension, which was eventually granted. There is on-going, bi-partisan support for child food security programs, centrally SNAP and Pandemic-EBT, to be strengthened and expanded in response to the pandemic.

We all can play a role in ensuring our children and our neighbor’s children have access to the basic nutritional building blocks needed to grow and succeed. We can and should donate funds and/or food to our local food banks. We also can support the policy solutions that will prevent children from going hungry. Call your elected officials and urge them to continue to support these critical food programs. By addressing the impacts of the pandemic and by working to ensure Hoosier kids have access to adequate, healthy food year-round, we can positively affect every child’s physical and mental well-being, academic achievement, and future economic productivity.


(Dr. Tami Silverman is the President & CEO of the Indiana Youth Institute. She may be reached at  or on Twitter at @Tami_IYI. IYI’s mission is to improve the lives of all Indiana children by strengthening and connecting the people, organizations, and communities that are focused on kids and youth.)