By Tami Silverman, President & CEO, Indiana Youth Institute

Back to school means back to sports for many Hoosier students. Playing sports is one of the best ways for students to stay active and help them maintain a healthier weight. Organized youth sports provide a wide range of benefits, many beyond physical fitness, and yet it is important to understand the pros, cons and realities of youth sports.

An ESPN study reports that 30% of girls and 37% of boys play on high school teams. While overall levels of school sports participation have remained fairly constant, more girls have been playing sports in recent years, according to Child Trends.

Students living in suburban areas are the most likely to be involved in sports followed by students living in rural areas. Hispanic students are less likely than black or non-Hispanic white students to participate in school athletics. Students attending the poorest schools, often in urban areas, are the least likely to play school sports. A growing number of these schools are cutting funding for sports, leaving their students without access to the many benefits associated with school sports.

In addition to the health benefits of participating in school sports, there are also clear academic benefits. In most cases, student athletes have higher grade point averages, higher standardized test scores, better attendance, lower dropout rates, and a better chance of going to college than students who do not participate. The skills learned through many sports, such as memorization, repetition, and group-learning, are also helpful in classroom learning. And skills such as leadership, teamwork and effective communication are valuable not only on the field and in the classroom, they are also highly attractive to future employers.

Playing sports can also generate social and emotional benefits for our kids. Sports participation can increase self-esteem and self-confidence. Regular exercise releases many beneficial chemicals in the brain, and student athletes often report reduced levels of stress, anxiety, and depression. The sense of belonging and community associated with being part of a team is also a plus. Sportsmanship, often thought of as the ability to cheer on others and acknowledge the accomplishments of your teammates and opponents, is an invaluable life skill. Student athletes are challenged to learn self-discipline and how to control emotions associated with big wins and losses. And simply having fun is a great reason to play sports.

At the same time, playing school sports is not right for every student. Family members need to understand the potential risks associated with sports participation. Too often parents, coaches, teams, and the students themselves, push too hard for wins, creating unhealthy performance pressure. If a student already has a packed schedule, perhaps with tough classes and part-time work, adding sports can increase rather than alleviate the child’s stress.

A good number of the cons associated with youth sports are related to the behaviors of the parents and family members. Experts suggest avoiding these three big pitfalls. Stop connecting your child’s performance with your ability to coach or parent them. Stop using the sports sidelines as your social circle or a place to recapture your glory days. And stop thinking that the goal of playing school sports is to get a college athletic scholarship. According to the NCAA, only about two-percent of high school athletes are awarded athletic scholarships to compete in college. Sports are intended to be enjoyable, with students citing “I wasn’t having fun” as the top reason both males and females quit playing sports. If it stops being fun, or if the cons begin to outweigh the pros for your child, it is time to reevaluate.

Sports can be an outstanding way for students to remain active, build self-esteem, and have a great time. The attitudes, mindsets, and skills taught through sports translate into positive adult behaviors. Yet far too many well-intentioned adults fail to support their child’s decisions when it comes to sports. It is up to us, as caring adults, to ensure we distinguish between the goals of playing sports and score of the game.

 

By Tami Silverman, President & CEO, Indiana Youth Institute 

Indiana Youth Institute’s legislative summary is a review of child-and youth-centered legislation passed and proposed during the State’s most recent legislative session. Because this was a budget year for the Indiana Legislature, we also highlight significant funding decisions affecting Indiana kids. 

Some of the major budget changes include:

1.) School funding increases of 2.5% for each of the next two years were passed, with an additional $539 million in base funding for K-12 education

2.) An additional $74 million for other education programs, like the Teacher Appreciation Grant program and the Secured School Safety Grant program 

3.) $20 million per year of new funding for the Next Level Jobs Employer Training Program, and 

4.) Department of Child Services receiving a $256 million budget increase in 2020 and $246 million in 2021. 

Some new laws aim to address family and community conditions. Senate Enrolled Act (SEA) 464, Homeless Youth, facilitates homeless youth access to government identification and education services through a designated representative other than a parent or guardian. House Enrolled Act (HEA) 1432, Parental Incarceration, stipulates that Department of Child Services case plans must consider incarcerated parents who have maintained a meaningful role in the child’s life, including but not limited to visitation.  

As noted above, education issues garnered significant attention, as lawmakers funded K-12 public education at the highest levels in over a decade. At the same time, many were disappointed that more was not done to close the State’s comparative gap in teacher compensation. Numerous education bills were passed including HEA 1628 which expands pre-K eligibility, while maintaining prior funding levels, to every Indiana county. Not surprisingly, several education bills, including but not limited to HEA 1004, HEA 1224, HEA 1398, HEA 1629, and SEA 002, addressed school safety issues. New this year, SEA 132, requires every high school to administer the naturalization exam for citizenship to students as part of the U.S. government course requirement. The bill also requires increased study of the Holocaust in a U.S history course.  

The State’s Department of Child Services (DCS) came under heavy scrutiny this session. In addition to the budget bill, SEA 1 and HEA 1006 cover several activities aimed at improving DCS operations including but not limited to setting new standards for timely responses, availability of telephone contacts, caseload limits, response requirements, and maximum age for collaborative care. The new legislation also includes a requirement that DCS report their progress to the general assembly before July 1, 2020.  

In juvenile justice legislation, proposed Senate Bill 279 would have allowed children as young as 12 to be waived into adult court after being charged with attempted murder. The bill met significant opposition, as the proposal runs contrary both to national trends and youth offender rehabilitation research.     

Two notable misses of this legislative session concerned addressing state smoking rates. With nearly 9 out of 10 smokers starting before age 18, and Indiana having one of the highest percentage of residents who smoke in the nation, nicotine use in all forms is a critical youth health issue that must be addressed by our state. This year, the Indiana Legislature failed to pass two bills – one to increase the state smoking age to 21, another to raise the Midwest’s lowest cigarette tax – which research shows would have had a significant impact on youth smoking rates. In addition, parents and schools continue to express frustration with rising vaping rates, and little was done this session to address this emerging public health issue.   

As we look to the summer study committees, we are monitoring the interim study committee on courts and the judiciary, focusing on reforms to laws and policies on the adjudication and rehabilitation of juvenile offenders.Education interim study committees will address the impact and funding of school counseling programs while also looking at teacher pay 

We were encouraged by the many bills that were introduced and passed which aimed to increase child well-being in our state. At the same time, much work remains to move our state beyond our 29th place national ranking. Indiana Youth Institute will continue to provide data and research, collaborative conversations, and community convenings in our efforts to ensure that all Indiana children are safe, healthy and well educated.     

(Tami Silverman is the President & CEO of the Indiana Youth Institute. She may be reached atiyi@iyi.orgor on Twitter at@Tami_IYI. IYI’s mission is to improve the lives of all Indiana children by strengthening and connecting the people, organizations, andcommunities that are focused on kids and youth.) 

We want you to have access to great data.

This data and research source guide lists some of our favorite trusted and reliable sources that you can use in your work with Indiana’s kids.

In addition to links to each source, the guide indicates whether:

  • Data is available at national, state, county and/or more specific local levels.
  • Data is disaggregated by race, gender, place, income, and/or other related indicators.
  • Data is accessible through dashboards, interactive visualizations, downloadable reports and/or raw data.

Read the Issue!

Social-emotional learning is a foundational approach to educating the whole child

This issue brief focuses on social-emotional learning (SEL) and how you can make SEL foundational to your work with Indiana’s youth.

SEL helps ensure students have the social, emotional, behavioral, and academic competence necessary for success in school and lifelong well-being.  This essential work focuses on educating the whole child and requires a cultural and mindset shift as well as a collective approach.

In this brief, you’ll find an overview of the Indiana Department of Education’s new Indiana Social-Emotional Competencies and the latest SEL research. Plus, you’ll learn how you can effectively implement SEL in your classroom, school and community.

Read the Brief! 

By Tami Silverman, President & CEO, Indiana Youth Institute

An increasing number of our children and youth have mental health disorders, encountering challenges with school, within their peer groups, and at home. Unfortunately, most of them are not getting the care they need. Signs of mental health disorder may be difficult to recognize, and unfortunately mental health disorders continue to be stigmatized. These, combined with a lack of access to services for many, create substantive barriers to care. More must be done to combat widely-held myths, connect children with treatment, supports, and services, and work to build strong support networks for all our young people.

A February 2019 study in JAMA Pediatrics estimated that 7.7 million American children, one in every 6 children, have at least one mental health disorder. According to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), ADHD, behavior problems, anxiety and depression are the most commonly diagnosed mental disorders in children, and some of these conditions, such as anxiety and depression, commonly occur together. The JAMA Pediatrics study also showed that roughly half of children do not receive any kind of treatment from a mental health professional.

Last year, 11.6% of Hoosier children received treatment or counseling from a mental health professional, a significant number, and yet still only a portion of Indiana children in need. The National Survey of Children’s Health indicates that 5.2% of Indiana children have ever been diagnosed with depression, and 11.0% have been diagnosed with anxiety. We know that accessibility remains an issue in Indiana. Among our neighboring states, Indiana has the lowest ratio of mental health providers available to serve the population, approximately 1 per every 700 people, and nearly 60% of the state’s population lives in designated mental health professional shortage areas.

Identifying mental health issues may be less obvious than physical ailments, such as broken bones, asthma, or diabetes. Occasional bouts with emotional distress, anxiety, stress, and depression are normal experiences for all children and youth. It can be difficult to distinguish between behaviors and emotions that are related to typical child development, and those that require extra attention and concern.

The national nonprofit Child Mind Institute describes seven myths about childhood mental illness that need to be debunked. These include recognizing that childhood mental illness is not caused by personal weakness or poor parenting. Children and youth cannot overcome mental health problems through willpower, nor will they grow out of their disorder. Instead, understanding that most psychiatric disorders begin before age fourteen provides additional incentive to screen and intervene during childhood. Children who receive early interventions and treatment have a good chance of managing or overcoming their symptoms.

How do you know when a child’s behavior is cause for concern? You should always seek immediate help for a child or teen who harms themselves or others or talks about wanting to do so. While short term stress, anxiety or depression can be developmentally appropriate, the National Institute of Health (NIH) advises that you should also seek help if a child’s behavior or emotional difficulties last more than a few weeks and are causing problems at school, at home or with their friends. Young children may exhibit symptoms such as intense worry or fear, frequent tantrums, complaints about frequent stomach or headaches with no known medical cause, and a lack of interest in playing with other children. Symptoms in teenagers include a loss of interest in previously enjoyable activities, spending increasing amounts of time alone or avoiding social activities, sleeping too little or too much, and engaging in risky, destructive or self-harming behaviors. The NIH recommends talking with your child’s teacher and consulting your pediatrician, asking either for a recommendation to a mental health professional who has specific experience in dealing with children, when and if possible.

Caring adults and a strong support network, including family members, teachers, coaches and mentors, can serve as protective factors for mental health. Indiana’s Family and Social Services Administration Division of Mental Health and Addiction manages our state’s Systems of Care, a model framework used to coordinate services and supports. Schools throughout the state continue to expand their services and expertise, understanding the importance of prevention, intervention, positive development, and communication to families.

While many agree that progress has been made regarding how mental health is viewed, stigma and negative connotations still keep far too many children from getting critical care and support. It is important to understand and work to reduce the barriers of stigma and access to mental health care. It is equally, if not more important, to understand that, for most youth, childhood mental disorders are episodic rather than permanent. Just as with physical illnesses, keys include ensuring children in need can receive appropriate screening and treatment. We would not ignore a child’s physical ailment, and it is time that we consistently take the same approach to their mental health.

(Tami Silverman is the President & CEO of the Indiana Youth Institute. She may be reached at iyi@iyi.org or on Twitter at @Tami_IYI. IYI’s mission is to improve the lives of all Indiana children by strengthening and connecting the people, organizations, and communities that are focused on kids and youth.)

Hoosier youth are the hidden victims of the opioid epidemic. The statewide crisis has a negative impact on child well-being, families and communities. Hoosiers are more likely to die from a drug overdose than car crashes and gun homicides combined. In 2017, Indiana’s rate of fatal overdoses was 25.7 per 100,000. This is significantly above the national average of 22.4, ranking Indiana’s overdose death rate as the 15th highest in the nation.

  • In 2017, 1,138 Hoosiers died from an opioid overdose, a rate of 17.1 deaths per 100,000 Indiana residents.
  • In 2016, opioid overdose deaths were most common among white (89.8%), followed by black (8.9%) and all other Hoosiers (1.3%).
  • 83 out of the 92 Indiana counties had at least one non-fatal emergency department visit involving any opioid in 2017.

Read the Issue!

Indiana ranks 48th for child abuse and neglect which puts children’s safety at risk and impacts future well-being across a lifetime.

Reporting

The Indiana Child Abuse and Neglect Hotline serves as the central reporting center for child maltreatment allegations.

  • The total number of calls made to the Indiana Child Abuse an dNeglect Hotline in 2018 was 203,602, an increase of 30.6% since 2012.
  • In 2018, the Indiana Child Abuse and Neglect Hotline handled 242,994 reports; this has increased by 36.9% since 2012.
  • Every adult in the state of Indiana is a mandatory reporter of child abuse and neglect. Any adult who has reason to believe that a child has been abused or neglected is required to call the Department of Child Services: 1-800-800-5556.

Read the Issue!

Hoosier youth health is threatened by the harmful effects of tobacco use. Youth vaping is on the rise and is associated with a likelihood of increasing the use of both e-cigarettes and cigarettes in the future.

Harmful Effects

The use of any type of tobacco product is unsafe for young people. Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable disease in the United States. All types of tobacco products are harmful and any exposure to tobacco smoke can cause immediate and long-term damage.

  • 3,700 Hoosier children under 18 become new daily smokers each year.
  • Nearly 9 out of 10 smokers start before age 18.4• Youth are sensitive to nicotine addiction and feel dependence earlier than adults. Nicotine addiction prolongs tobacco use and leads to severe health consequences.
  • As the brain continues developing until age 25, adolescent use of e-cigarettes containing nicotine can harm the part of the brain responsible for mood, learning and impulse control.

Read the Issue! 

By Tami Silverman, President & CEO, Indiana Youth Institute

April is Child Abuse Awareness Month, and 2019 is the year Indiana must take significant additional steps to protect our youngest and most vulnerable residents. Indiana has the third highest rate in the country of substantiated child abuse and neglect cases per 1,000 children. That’s far too many Hoosier kids.

Last summer, the Child Welfare Policy and Practice Group (CWG) conducted a six-month assessment of DCS, publishing their findings along with 20 specific recommendations. The recommendations range from improving treatment and support for families struggling with substance use disorder, to enhanced coordination among state agencies, to transforming the culture at DCS to encourage better staff decision making and responsiveness. Since the report was released, local and state leaders have pressed for action and additional ways to keep our kids safe. A number of responsive bills have since been proposed in the Indiana General Assembly, and the Governor’s budget includes increased funds to address the Department of Child Service’s (DCS) high caseloads, low salaries and turnover rates. We need to build upon these proposals.

A child may be declared by an Indiana court to be a Child in Need of Services (CHINS) if they are seriously impaired or endangered by abuse or neglect, and the child’s parents are unable or unwilling to correct the problem on their own. In 2017, 29,630 Hoosier children were designated as Children in Need of Services (CHINS), more than twice the number of kids so designated just three years earlier. Scott county has the highest rate of CHINS, followed by Perry and Spencer counties, while Hamilton, Hendricks and Washington counties have the state’s lowest rates. These children often face court hearings, new foster homes, and school transitions. In such cases, a court-appointed special advocate (CASA) or guardian ad litem (GAL) volunteer plays a critical role, ensuring that our most vulnerable children have with them a supportive adult to speak up for their best interests. Indiana has certified CASA/GAL programs in over 80 of our 92 counties. Yet nearly 6,000 children are waiting for a CASA/GAL volunteer.

Interestingly, new research shows that one of our state’s on-going efforts to increase child well-being, increasing access to high quality pre-K, can also help reduce child abuse and neglect. The Child Trends study examined records from children in Early Head Start programs in 14 states. While they were not expecting to find this result, the researchers discovered that participating three-year-olds experienced less family conflict and parenting stress, more supportive parenting and home environments, and better child cognitive and self-regulation skills. These positive factors made the preschoolers 10- 22% less likely to become involved with the child welfare system before age 16. It is understandable, and encouraging, that by engaging parents and helping families develop supportive habits, high quality pre-K programs can also reduce child abuse and neglect rates.

In addition to encouraging the passage of promising new legislation, and supporting increased funding and impactful community programs, we must remember that protecting our children is a responsibility we all shoulder. Every Indiana adult is a mandatory reporter of suspected child abuse and neglect. The Indiana Child Abuse and Neglect Hotline, 1-800-800-5556, is available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, 365 days a year. Reports can be made anonymously.

In the words of the late President Kennedy, “Children are the world’s most valuable resource and its best hope for the future.” Throughout April, communities across the state will be holding prevention and awareness events. To find out what’s going on in your community go to the Prevent Child Abuse Indiana’s website at https://pcain.org/. This month, and every month, we must do more to provide the basic need of safety to all Hoosier children.

(Tami Silverman is the President & CEO of the Indiana Youth Institute. She may be reached at iyi@iyi.org or on Twitter at @Tami_IYI. IYI’s mission is to improve the lives of all Indiana children by strengthening and connecting the people, organizations, and communities that are focused on kids and youth.)

By Tami Silverman, President & CEO, Indiana Youth Institute 

“When I was a child…” We all have likely said this, wrapping ourselves in nostalgia about what we perceived as a carefree, easier time. In many ways, to have been a child decades ago was less complicated. While today’s students have access to technology, information, and opportunities like never before, they also have unprecedented levels of stress, anxiety and depression. High-stakes testing, hyper-competitive sports and activities, and ever-present social media all add to the developmental stressors of growing up and finding where you fit in. We also better understand the compounding nature of childhood traumas, such as living in an environment exposed to substance use disorder, child abuse or maltreatment, neighborhood violence and poverty.  

Increasingly, educators are asked to identify and address behavioral health needs of large numbers of students. The Indiana Department of Education’s (IDOE) new Indiana Social-Emotional Competencies (Competencies) address the social and emotional needs of students in grades Pre-K through 12. IDOE’s Competencies start with five core standards: self-awareness, social awareness, self-management, relationship skills, and responsible decision-making, and add to that sensory integration and the mindset. This program is designed to advance student social and emotional development and has been proven effective in promoting academic achievement, reducing conduct problems, improving prosocial behavior, and reducing emotional distress. This is a positive development, as data related to the social and emotional well-being of many of Indiana’s students indicates concerning unmet needs. 

Distressingly, in Indiana, suicide is the 2nd leading cause of death for youth ages 15-24 and the 4th leading cause of death for youth ages 5-14. Research shows 1 in 5 Indiana high school students – which translates to approximately 200,000 of our children – seriously considered attempting suicide in the past year, and data from the past several years shows that percentage continues to rise. Indiana ranks 2nd out of 34 states measured in the percentage of students who made a suicide plan, and 3rd out of 37 states measured in the percentage of students who seriously considered attempting suicide. Experts and teens list several reasons for these trends, including insufficient access to mental health screening, poor access to mental health services, and resistance to seeking care.  

School suspensions and expulsions are commonly used to discipline students for disruptive behavior. However, many disciplinary techniques negatively impact student achievement, increase students’ risk of dropping out and increases the likelihood of involvement with the criminal justice system. Furthermore, in Indiana, black students are disproportionately subject to this type of intervention. Black students are 2.3 times more likely to receive in-school suspension, 4 times more likely to receive out-of-school suspension, and 2.2 times more likely to be expelled than their white peers. Students engaged in social and emotional learning programs routinely report increases in their optimism, improved social behavior, better self-control and decreased aggression. There also is evidence that equity focused interventions, such as social and emotional learning programs, along with alternatives to suspension, help reduce the discipline gap, mitigate the above negative impacts, keep students in school and improve overall school climate.  

It is encouraging to see that school climate, and school safety, has been a focus of the current legislative session, including strong support for funding programs that increase access to mental health services. Students who feel unsafe at school are more likely to miss days of class, and students who witness school violence are more likely to experience physical and mental health problems. In 2018, 25.9% of Hoosier high school students did not feel safe at school. Black high school students (33.4%) feel less safe at school, than their Hispanic (29.2%) and white peers (24.5%). Students who identify as lesbian, gay, or bisexual are 2.6 times more likely to miss school because they felt unsafe at school or on their way to or from school in the past month, than their heterosexual peers.  

IDOE’s investment in addressing the social and emotional, as well as academic, needs of our students will likely pay dividends for years to come. Studies show that on average, every dollar invested in such programs yields $11 in savings from juvenile justice crime, higher lifetime earnings and increased mental and physical health. It is also clear that social and emotional learning programs are even more effective when schools partner with afterschool and community programs and families. Indiana Youth Institute is honored to partner with IDOE to support the rollout of their Social and Emotional Competencies. The intersection of social and emotional well-being, school safety, and student success is clear, and we all benefit when all Indiana students are prepared to succeed.  

(Tami Silverman is the President & CEO of the Indiana Youth Institute. She may be reached at iyi@iyi.org or on Twitter at @Tami_IYI. IYI’s mission is to improve the lives of all Indiana children by strengthening and connecting the people, organizations, and communities that are focused on kids and youth.)